Interlibrary Loan (ILL)
Libraries may make, send, and receive copies of copyrighted materials through interlibrary loan (ILL) services under Section 108. The sending and receiving libraries must comply with different provisions of the statute.
Requirements of the library making and sending the copy
In effect, the sending library is making the copy for a patron’s private study or research. In that regard, the library should therefore comply with the private study provisions of Section 108 that permit copies of short items and even entire works under defined circumstances. Copies typically requested through ILL include articles, chapters, and other similar works that are encompassed by those provisions of Section 108.
Requirements of the library receiving the copy
For many activities under Section 108, libraries are allowed to make single or isolated copies, and are not to engage in "systematic reproduction or distribution" of materials. However, libraries are allowed to engage in ILL arrangements, so long as the arrangements "do not have, as their purpose or effect, that the library or archives receiving such copies or phonorecords for distribution does so in such aggregate quantities as to substitute for a subscription to or purchase of such work."